Stage 1 – a small, well-limited tumor, located deep in the mucosa and sub mucosa of stomach, regional metastasis not.
Stage 2 – a tumor of large size, growing into the muscle layers of stomach, but not germinating serous cover. The stomach maintains mobility in the immediate regional lymph node metastases single.
Stage 3 – tumor of considerable size, is outside the stomach wall, growing into adjacent organs, fuse them and severely limit the mobility of the stomach, the same tumor or with multiple smaller regional metastases.
4th stage – a tumor of any size and any nature in the presence of distant metastases.
Diagnosis of gastric cancer
If any complaints of pain in the stomach doctor may prescribe a patient-microscopic examination fibrogastroduodeno stomach. During this procedure, a physician-endoscopist would take pieces of tissue from the stomach for a biopsy. As often, unfortunately, we hear: “I will not do it. I can not. Let’s do an x-ray. ” But in chronic diseases of the stomach fibrogastroduodenoscopy to do every year. This will reveal early cancer, that is, the stage of the tumor, where it affects only the inner layer (mucosa) of gastric wall. Treatment initiated in this stage, on the one hand, guarantees 85-90% of patients with persistent treatment, on the other – is a more gentle nature.
X-ray also will have to do. It is included in the survey design. In applying the special X-ray technique allows us to see minute changes in the stomach.
Next you need to do ultrasound of the abdomen, to determine their status. All these surveys are done in outpatient.
In complex cases, as well as to determine the distribution process, used CT (X-ray computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging).
From laboratory studies do blood tests, which will be of great importance to have an ESR value and hemoglobin. Also make fecal occult blood.
Treatment of gastric cancer
The most basic method of treatment of gastric cancer is surgery. The volume of surgical treatment of gastric cancer depends on the extent of the tumor in the stomach, the degree of regional lymph nodes and presence of distant metastases. The type and amount of surgery will determine the surgeon, depending on the lesion.
Chemotherapy may be the primary method of treatment of gastric cancer when the tumor has already spread to distant organs. This method of treatment is applied before or after surgery. Experience has shown that chemotherapy can relieve symptoms in some patients with gastric cancer, especially in cases where the cancer has spread to other areas of the body. There are indications that chemotherapy combined with radiation therapy can delay the recurrence (return) of the disease and prolong life in patients with advanced process.
After surgery, radiation therapy can be used to destroy small foci of tumors that can not be seen or removed during surgery. Radiation therapy can be used to alleviate symptoms such as pain, bleeding and difficulty of the passage of food.