What is myocarditis? Myocarditis – an inflammation of the heart muscle, accompanied by a breach of its function. The infection gets into the myocardium with blood. The greatest number of diagnosis “Myocarditis” doctors put it during the seasonal outbreaks of respiratory viral infections.
In addition to respiratory infections such as influenza, such an infectious agent may be other viruses such as measles, chickenpox, rubella, as well as bacteria, rickettsia and other infections.
But, apart from infections, the cause for the development of myocarditis may be an allergic reaction to the introduction of drugs, especially antibiotics, serums and vaccines.
Another cause of myocarditis – a systemic connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and other systemic vasculitis.
Among the causes of myocardial inflammation special emphasis on rheumatic fever, myocarditis, which is one of the main manifestations of the disease, along with a combination of endocarditis and pericarditis.
Depending on the causes of myocarditis are distinguished:
in diffuse (system) connective tissue diseases, injuries, burns, exposure to ionizing radiation;
idiopathic (ie unknown nature) Abramov-Fiedler myocarditis.
Adrift distinguish acute, subacute, chronic and recurrent (with the presence of remission – improvements for several months or years) myocarditis.
For various types of myocarditis, the symptoms are slightly different from each other. But there are some common symptoms. Characterized by complaints of patients on a variety of its severity, long-lasting, non-exercise-heart pains, shortness of breath and palpitation on exertion, disruptions of the heart, weakness and fatigue. Body temperature may be normal, but sometimes it is noted to increase S. 37-37,90
This form of myocarditis can occur in two forms: the infectious-toxic and infectious-allergic. When infectious-toxic form of heart disease symptoms appear during severe intoxication, and in infectious form of allergic symptoms arise lesions 2-3 weeks after the beginning of acute exacerbation of chronic or infectious disease.
Myocarditis begins against the backdrop of infection and shortly thereafter. Patients complain of illness, sometimes persistent pain in his heart, palpitations, arrhythmias, shortness of breath. Occasionally there are complaints of soreness in the joints. Body temperature is normal or slightly elevated. The degree of severity of symptoms determined the prevalence and severity of progression.
But sometimes the onset of the disease may not be visible or hidden.
Infectious myocarditis may be complicated by the development of heart failure.
This form of myocarditis develops within 12 – 48 h after injection of serum, vaccine or drug to which the patient is allergic.
Idiopathic myocarditis has a more severe, sometimes malignant course with development of cardiomegaly – an increase in heart size, heavy rhythm disturbances and conduction of heart failure. Often this is complicated by myocarditis, blood clots in the cavities of the heart, which, in turn, separated by the blood stream, causing necrosis (infarcts) of other organs (thromboembolism).